The Amitâyur-dhyâna-sûtra
Category: Buddhist
1:14 h
The Amitāyurdhyāna Sūtra is a Mahayana sutra in Pure Land Buddhism, a branch of Mahāyāna Buddhism. It is one of the three principle Pure Land sutras along with the Infinite Life Sutra and the Amitabha Sutra. Amitāyus is another name for the Buddha Amitābha, the preeminent figure in Pure Land Buddhism, and this sūtra focuses mainly on meditations involving complex visualization. This is reflected in the name of the sūtra, which translates to the “Amitāyus Meditation Sūtra.”



Buddha Amitayus

Part I.

Thus it was heard by me: At one time the Buddha dwelt in Rājagṛha, on the mountain Gṛdhrakūṭa, with a large assembly of Bhikshus and with thirty-two thousands of Bodhisattvas; with Mañjuśrī, Prince of the Law at the head of the assembly.

At that time, in the great city of Rājagṛha there was a prince, the heir-apparent, named Ajātaśatru. He listened to the wicked counsel of Devadatta and other friends and forcibly arrested Bimbisāra his father, the king, and shut him up by himself in a room with seven walls, proclaiming to all the courtiers that no one should approach (the king). The chief consort of the king, Vaidehī by name, was true and faithful to her lord, the king. She supported him in this wise: having purified herself by bathing and washing, she anointed her body with honey and ghee mixed with corn-flour, and she concealed the juice of grapes in the various garlands she wore (in order to give him food without being noticed by the warder). As she stole in and made an offering to him, he was able to eat the flour and to drink the juice (of grapes). Then he called for water and rinsed his mouth. That done, the king stretched forth his folded hands towards the Mount Gṛdhrakūṭa and worshipped duly and respectfully the World-Honoured One, who at that time abode there. And he uttered the following prayer: ‘Mahāyāna is my friend and relative; let him, I pray, feel compassion towards me; and come and communicate to me the eight prohibitive precepts (of Buddha).’ On this, Mahāyāna at once appeared before the king, coming with a speed equal to the flight of a falcon or an eagle, and communicated to him the eight precepts.

Day after day did he come. The World-Honoured One sent also his worthy disciple Pūrṇa to preach the Law to the king. Thus a period of three weeks passed by. The king showed by his countenance that he was happy and contented when he had an opportunity of hearing the Law as well as of enjoying the honey and flour.

At that time, Ajātaśatru asked the warder of the gate whether his father was yet alive. On this, the warder answered him: ‘O Exalted king, the chief consort (of thy father) brought (food) and presented it to him by anointing her body with honey and flour and filling her garlands with the juice (of grapes), and the Śramaṇas, Mahāyāna and Pūrṇa, approached the king through the sky in order to preach the Law to him. It is, O king, impossible to prevent them coming.’ When the prince heard this answer his indignation arose against his mother: ‘My mother,’ he cried, ‘is, indeed, a rebel, for she was found in company with that rebel. Wicked people are those Śramaṇas, and it is their art of spells causing illusion and delusion that delayed the death of that wicked king for so many days.’ Instantly he brandished his sharp sword, intending to slay his mother. At that moment, there intervened a minister named Candraprabha, who was possessed of great wisdom and intelligence, and Jīva (a famous physician). They saluted the prince and remonstrated with him, saying: ‘We, ministers, O Great king, heard that since the beginning of the kalpas there had been several wicked kings, even to the number of eighteen thousand, who killed their own fathers, coveting the throne of (their respective) kingdoms, as mentioned in the Sūtra of the discourse of the Veda Yet never have we heard of a man killing his mother, though he be void of virtue. Now, if thou, O king, shouldst dare to commit such a deadly sin, thou wouldst bring a stain upon the blood of the Kshatriyas (the kingly race). We cannot even bear to hear of it. Thou art indeed a Caṇḍāla (the lowest race); we shall not stay here with thee.’ After this speech, the two great ministers retired stepping backward, each with his hand placed on his sword. Ajātaśatru was then frightened, and greatly afraid of them, and asked Jīva, saying: ‘Wilt thou not be friendly to me?’ In reply Jīva said to him: ‘Do not then, O Great king, by any means think of injuring thy mother.’ On hearing this, the prince repented and sought for mercy, and at once laid down his sword and did his mother no hurt. He finally ordered the officers of the inner chambers to put the queen in a hidden palace and not to allow her to come out again.

When Vaidehī was thus shut up in retirement she became afflicted by sorrow and distress. She began to do homage to Buddha from afar, looking towards the Mount Gṛdhrakūṭa. She uttered the following words: ‘O Tathāgata! World-Honoured One! In former times thou. hast constantly sent Ānanda to me for enquiry and consolation. I am now in sorrow. and grief. Thou, O World-Honoured One, art majestic and exalted; in no way shall I be able to see thee. Wilt thou, I pray thee, command Mahāyāna and thy honoured disciple, Ānanda, to come and have an interview with me?’ After this speech, she grieved and wept, shedding tears like a shower of rain. Before she raised her head from doing homage to the distant Buddha, the World-Honoured One knew what Vaidehī was wishing in her mind, though he was on the Mount Gṛdhrakūṭa. Therefore, he instantly ordered Mahāyāna and Ānanda to go to her through the sky. Buddha himself disappeared from that mountain and appeared in the royal palace.

When the queen raised her head as she finished homage to Buddha, she saw before her the World-Honoured Buddha Śākyamuni, whose body was purple gold in colour, sitting on a lotus-flower which consists of a hundred jewels, with Mahāyāna attending on his left, and with Ānanda on his right. Śakra (Indra), Brahman, and other gods that protect the world were seen in the midst of the sky, everywhere showering heavenly flowers with which they made offerings to Buddha in their worship. Vaidehī, at the sight of Buddha the World-Honoured One, took off her garlands and prostrated herself on the ground, crying, sobbing, and speaking to Buddha: ‘O World-Honoured One! what former sin of mine has produced such a wicked son? And again, O Exalted One, from what cause and circumstances hast thou such an affinity (by blood and religion) with Devadatta (Buddha’s wicked cousin and once his disciple)?’

‘My only prayer,’ she continued, ‘is this: O World-Honoured One, mayst thou preach to me in detail of all the places where there is no sorrow or trouble, and where I ought to go to be born anew. I am not satisfied with this world of depravities with Jambudvīpa (India) which is full of hells, full of hungry spirits (pretas), and of the brute creation. In this world of depravities, there is many an assemblage of the wicked. May I not hear, I pray, the voice of the wicked in the future; and may I not see any wicked person.

‘Now I throw my five limbs down to the ground before thee, and seek for thy mercy by confessing my sins. I pray for this only that the Sun-like Buddha may instruct me how to meditate on a world wherein all actions are pure.’ At that moment, the World-Honoured One flashed forth a golden ray from between his eyebrows. It extended to all the innumerable worlds of the ten quarters. On its return the ray rested on the top of Buddha’s head and transformed itself into a golden pillar just like the Mount Sumeru, wherein the pure and admirable countries of the Buddhas in the ten quarters appeared all at once illuminated.

One was a country consisting of seven jewels, another was a country all full of lotus-flowers; one was like the palace of Maheśvara Deva (god Śiva), another was like a mirror of crystal, with the countries in the ten quarters reflected therein: There were innumerable countries like these, resplendent, gorgeous, and delightful to look upon. All were meant for Vaidehī to see (and choose from).

Thereupon Vaidehī again spoke to Buddha: ‘O World-Honoured One, although all other Buddha countries are pure and radiant with light, I should, nevertheless, wish myself to be born in the realm of Buddha Amitāyus (or Amitābha), in the world of Highest Happiness (Sukhāvatī), Now I simply pray thee, O World-Honoured One, to teach me how to concentrate my thought so as to obtain aright vision (of that country).’

Thereupon the World-Honoured One gently smiled upon her, and rays of five colours issued forth out of his mouth, each ray shining as far as the head of king Bimbisāra.

At that moment, the mental vision of that exalted king was perfectly clear though he was shut up in lonely retirement, and he could see the World-Honoured One from afar. As he paid homage with his head and face, he naturally increased and advanced (in wisdom), whereby he attained to the fruition of an Anāgāmin (the third of the four grades to Nirvāṇa ).

Then the World-Honoured One said: ‘Now dost thou not know, O Vaidehī, that Buddha Amitāyus is not very far from here? Thou shouldst apply thy mind entirely to close meditation upon those who have already perfected the pure actions necessary for that Buddha country.

‘I now proceed to fully expound them for thee in many parables, and thereby afford all ordinary persons of the future who wish to cultivate these pure actions an opportunity of being born in the Land of Highest Happiness (Sukhāvatī) in the western quarter. Those who wish to be born in that country of Buddha have to cultivate a threefold goodness. Firstly, they should act filially towards their parents and support them; serve and respect their teachers and elders; be of compassionate mind, abstain from doing any injury, and cultivate the ten virtuous actions Secondly, they should take and observe the vow of seeking refuge with the Three Jewels, fulfil all moral precepts, and not lower their dignity or neglect any ceremonial observance. Thirdly, they should give their whole mind to the attainment of the Bodhi (perfect wisdom), deeply believe in (the principle of) cause and effect, study and recite (the Sūtras of) the Mahāyāna doctrine, and persuade and encourage others who pursue the same course as themselves.

‘These three groups as enumerated are called the pure actions (leading to the Buddha country).’ ‘O Vaidehī!’ Buddha continued, ‘dost thou not understand now? These three classes of actions are the efficient cause of the pure actions taught by all the Buddhas of the past, present, and future.’

Buddha then addressed Ānanda as well as Vaidehī: ‘Listen carefully, listen carefully! Ponder carefully on what you hear! I, Tathāgata, now declare the pure actions needful (for that Buddha country) for the sake of all beings hereafter, that are subject to the misery (inflicted) by the enemy, i.e. passion. Well done, O Vaidehī! Appropriate questions are those which thou hast asked O Ānanda, do thou remember these words of me, of Buddha, and repeat them openly to many assemblies. I, Tathāgata, now teach Vaidehī and also all beings hereafter in order that they may meditate on the World of Highest Happiness (Sukhāvatī) in the western quarter.

‘It is by the power of Buddha only that one can see that pure land (of Buddha) as clear as one sees the image of one’s face reflected in the transparent mirror held up before one.

‘When one sees the state of happiness of that country in its highest excellence, one greatly rejoices in one’s heart and immediately attains a spirit of resignation prepared to endure whatever consequences may yet arise .’ Buddha, turning again to Vaidehī, said: ‘Thou art but an ordinary person; the quality of thy mind is feeble and inferior.

‘Thou hast not as yet obtained the divine eye and canst not perceive what is at a distance. All the Buddhas, Tathāgatas have various means at their disposal and can therefore afford thee an opportunity of seeing (that Buddha country).’ Then Vaidehī rejoined: ‘O World-Honoured One, people such as I, can now see that land by the power of Buddha, but how shall all those beings who are to come after Buddha’s Nirvāṇa, and who, as being depraved and devoid of good qualities, will be harassed by the five worldly sufferings —how shall they see the World of Highest Happiness of the Buddha Amitāyus?’

Part II.

Buddha then replied: ‘Thou and all other beings besides ought to make it their only aim, with concentrated thought, to get a perception of the western quarter. You will ask how that perception is to be formed. I will explain it now. All beings, if not blind from birth, are uniformly possessed of sight, and they all see the setting sun. Thou shouldst sit down properly, looking in the western direction, and prepare thy thought for a close meditation on the sun; cause thy mind to be firmly fixed (on it) so as to have an unwavering perception by the exclusive application (of thy thought), and gaze upon it (more particularly) when it is about to set and looks like a suspended drum.

‘After thou hast thus seen the sun, let (that image) remain clear and fixed, whether thine eyes be shut or open;—such is the perception of the sun, which is the First Meditation.

‘Next thou shouldst form the perception of water; gaze on the water clear and pure, and let (this image) also remain clear and fixed (afterwards); never allow thy thought to be scattered and lost.

‘When thou hast thus seen the water thou shouldst form the perception of ice. As thou seest the ice shining and transparent, thou shouldst imagine the appearance of lapis lazuli.

‘After that has been done, thou wilt see the ground consisting of lapis lazuli, transparent and shining both within and without. Beneath this ground of lapis lazuli there will be seen a golden banner with the seven jewels, diamonds and the rest, supporting the ground It extends to the eight points of the compass, and thus the eight corners (of the ground) are perfectly filled up. Every side of the eight quarters consists of a hundred jewels, every jewel has a thousand rays, and every ray has eighty-four thousand colours which, when reflected in the ground of lapis lazuli, look like a thousand millions of suns, and it is difficult to see them all one by one. Over the surface of that ground of lapis lazuli there are stretched golden ropes intertwined crosswise; divisions are made by means of (strings of) seven jewels with every part clear and distinct.

‘Each jewel has rays of five hundred colours which look like flowers or like the moon and stars. Lodged high up in the open sky these rays form a tower of rays, whose storeys and galleries are ten millions in number and built of a hundred jewels. Both sides of the tower have each a hundred millions of flowery banners furnished and decked with numberless musical instruments. Eight kinds of cool breezes proceed from the brilliant rays. When those musical instruments are played, they emit the sounds “suffering,” “non-existence,” “impermanence,” and “non-self;”—such is the perception of the water, which is the Second Meditation.

‘When this perception has been formed, thou shouldst meditate on its (constituents) one by one and make (the images) as clear as possible, so that they may never be scattered and lost, whether thine eyes be shut or open. Except only during the time of thy sleep, thou shouldst always keep this in thy mind. One who has reached this (stage of) perception is said to have dimly seen the Land of Highest Happiness (Sukhāvatī).

‘One who has obtained the Samādhi (the state of supernatural calm) is able to see the land (of that Buddha country) clearly and distinctly: (this state) is too much to be explained fully;—such is the perception of the land, and it is the Third Meditation.

‘Thou shouldst remember, O Ānanda, the Buddha words of mine, and repeat this law for attaining to the perception of the land ( of the Buddha country) for the sake of the great mass of the people hereafter who may wish to be delivered from their sufferings. If anyone meditates on the land (of that Buddha country), his sins (which bind him to) births And deaths during eighty millions of kalpas shall be expiated; after the abandonment of his (preSent) body, he will assuredly be born in the pure land in the following life. The practice of this kind of meditation is called the “right meditation.” If it be of another kind it is called “heretical meditation.”’

Buddha then spoke to Ānanda and Vaidehī: ‘When the perception of the land (of that Buddha country) has been gained, you should next meditate on the jewel-trees (of that country). In meditating on the jewel-trees, you should take each by itself and form a perception of the seven rows of trees; every tree is eight hundred yojanas high, and all the jewel-trees have flowers and leaves consisting of seven jewels all perfect. All flowers and leaves have colours like the colours of various jewels:—from the colour of lapis lazuli there issues a golden ray; from the colour of crystal, a saffron ray; from the colour of agate, a diamond ray; from the colour of diamond, a ray of blue pearls. Corals, amber, and all other gems are used as ornaments for illumination; nets of excellent pearls are spread over the trees, each tree is covered by seven sets of nets, and between one set and another there are five hundred millions of palaces built of excellent flowers, resembling the palace of the Lord Brahman; all heavenly children live there quite naturally; every child has a garland consisting of five hundred millions of precious gems like those that are fastened on Śakra’s (Indra’s) head the rays of which shine over a hundred yojanas, just as if a hundred millions of suns and moons were united together; it is difficult to explain them in detail. That (garland) is the most excellent among all, as it is the commixture of all sorts of jewels. Rows of these jewel-trees touch one another; the leaves of the trees also join one another.

‘Among the dense foliage there blossom various beautiful flowers, upon which are miraculously found fruits of seven jewels. The leaves of the trees are all exactly equal in length and in breadth, measuring twenty-five yojanas each way; every leaf has a thousand colours and a hundred different pictures on it, just like a heavenly garland. There are many excellent flowers which have the colour of Jāmbūnada gold and an appearance of fire-wheels in motion, turning between the leaves in a graceful fashion. All the fruits are produced just (as easily) as if they flowed out from the pitcher of the God Śakra. There is a magnificent ray which transforms itself into numberless jewelled canopies with banners and flags. Within these jewelled canopies the works of all the Buddhas of the Great Chiliocosm appear illuminated; the Buddha countries of the ten quarters also are manifested therein. When you have seen these trees you should also meditate on them one by one in order. In meditating on the trees, trunks, branches, leaves, flowers, and fruits, let them all be distinct and clear;—such is the perception of the trees (of that Buddha country), and it is the Fourth Meditation.

‘Next, you should perceive the water (of that country). The perception of the water is as follows:—

‘In the Land of Highest Happiness there are waters in eight lakes; the water in every lake consists of seven jewels which are soft and yielding. Deriving its source from the king of jewels that fulfils every wish the water is divided into fourteen streams; every stream has the colour of seven jewels; its channel is built of gold, the bed of which consists of the sand of variegated diamonds.

‘In the midst of each lake there are sixty millions of lotus-flowers, made of seven jewels; all the flowers are perfectly round and exactly equal (in circumference), being twelve yojanas. The water of jewels flows amidst the flowers and rises and falls by the stalks (of the lotus); the sound of the streaming water is melodious and pleasing, and propounds all the perfect virtues (Parāmitās), “suffering,” “non-existence,” “impermanence,” and “non-self;” it proclaims also the praise of the signs of perfection, and minor marks of excellence of all Buddhas. From the king of jewels that fulfils every wish, stream forth the golden-coloured rays excessively beautiful, the radiance of which transforms itself into birds possessing the colours of a hundred jewels, which sing out harmonious notes, sweet and delicious, ever praising the remembrance of Buddha, the remembrance of the Law, and the remembrance of the Church;—such is the perception of the water of eight good qualities, and it is the Fifth Meditation.

‘Each division of that (Buddha) country, which consists of several jewels, has also jewelled storeys and galleries to the number of five hundred millions; within each storey and gallery there are innumerable Devas engaged in playing heavenly music. There are some musical instruments that are hung up in the open sky, like the jewelled banners of heaven; they emit musical sounds without being struck, which, while resounding variously, all propound the remembrance of Buddha, of the Law and of the Church, Bhikshus, &c. When this perception is duly accomplished, one is said to have dimly seen the jewel-trees, jewel-ground, and jewel-lakes of that World of Highest Happiness (Sukhāvatī);—such is the perception formed by meditating on the general (features of that Land), and it is the Sixth Meditation.

‘If one has experienced this, one has expiated the greatest sinful deeds which would (otherwise lead one) to transmigration for numberless millions of kalpas; after his death he will assuredly be born in that land.

‘Listen carefully! listen carefully! Think over what you have heard! I, Buddha, am about to explain in detail the law of delivering one’s self from trouble and torment. Commit this to your memory in order to explain it in detail before a great assembly.’ While Buddha was uttering these words, Buddha Amitāyus stood in the midst of the sky with Bodhisattvas Mahāsthāma and Avalokiteśvara, attending on his right and left respectively. There was such a bright and dazzling radiance that no one could see clearly; the brilliance was a hundred thousand times greater than that of gold (Jāmbūnada). Thereupon Vaidehī saw Buddha Amitāyus and approached the World-Honoured One, and worshipped him, touching his feet; and spoke to him as follows: ‘O Exalted One! I am now able, by the power of Buddha, to see Buddha Amitāyus together with the two Bodhisattvas. But how shall all the beings of the future meditate on Buddha Amitāyus and the two Bodhisattvas?’

Buddha answered: ‘Those who wish to meditate on that Buddha ought first to direct their thought as follows: form the perception of a lotus-flower on a ground of seven jewels, each leaf of that lotus exhibits the colours of a hundred jewels, and has eighty-four thousand veins, just like heavenly pictures; each vein possesses eighty-four thousand rays, of which each can be clearly seen. Every small leaf and flower is two hundred and fifty yojanas in length and the same measurement in breadth. Each lotus-flower possesses eighty-four thousand leaves, each leaf has the kingly pearls to the number of a hundred millions, as ornaments for illumination; each pearl shoots out a thousand rays like bright canopies. The surface of the ground is entirely covered by a mixture of seven jewels. There is a tower built of the gems which are like those that are fastened on Śakra’s head. It is inlaid and decked with eighty thousand diamonds, Kiṃśuka jewels, Brahma-maṇi and excellent pearl nets.

‘On that tower there are miraculously found four posts with jewelled banners; each banner looks like a hundred thousand millions of Sumeru mountains.

‘The jewelled veil over these banners is like that of the celestial palace of Yama, illuminated with five hundred millions of excellent jewels, each jewel has eighty-four thousand rays, each ray has various golden colours to the number of eighty-four thousand, each golden colour covers the whole jewelled soil, it changes and is transformed at various places, every now and then exhibiting various appearances; now it becomes a diamond tower, now a pearl net, again clouds of mixed flowers, freely changing its manifestation in the ten directions it exhibits the state of Buddha;—such is the perception of the flowery throne, and it is the Seventh Meditation.’

Buddha, turning to Ānanda, said: ‘These excellent flowers were created originally by the power of the prayer of Bhikshu, Dharmākara All who wish to exercise the remembrance of that Buddha ought first to form the perception of that flowery throne. When engaged in it one ought not to perceive vaguely, but fix the mind upon each detail separately. Leaf, jewel, ray, tower, and banner should be clear and distinct, just as one sees the image of one’s own face in a mirror. When one has achieved this perception, the sins which would produce births and deaths during fifty thousand kalpas are expiated, and he is one who will most assuredly be born in the World of Highest Happiness.

‘When you have perceived this, you should next perceive Buddha himself. Do you ask how? Every Buddha Tathāgata is one whose (spiritual) body is the principle of nature (Darmadhātu-kāya), so that he may enter into the mind of any beings. Consequently, when you have perceived Buddha, it is indeed that mind of yours that possesses those thirty-two signs of perfection and eighty minor marks of excellence (which you see in Buddha). In fine, it is your mind that becomes Buddha, nay, it is your mind that is indeed Buddha. The ocean of true and universal knowledge of all the Buddhas derives its source from one’s own mind and thought. Therefore you should apply your thought with an undivided attention to a careful meditation on that Buddha Tathāgata, Arhat, the Holy and Fully Enlightened One. In forming the perception of that Buddha, you should first perceive the image of that Buddha; whether your eyes be open or shut, look at an image like Jāmbūnada gold in colour, sitting on that flower (throne mentioned before).

‘When you have seen the seated figure your mental vision will become clear, and you will be able to see clearly and distinctly the adornment of that Buddha country, the jewelled ground, &c. In seeing these things, let them be clear and fixed just as you see the palms of your hands. When you have passed through this experience, you should further form (a perception of) another great lotus-flower which is on the left side of Buddha, and is exactly equal in every way to the above-mentioned lotus-flower of Buddha. Still further, you should form (a perception of) another lotus-flower which is on the right side of Buddha. Perceive that an image of Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara is sitting on the left-hand flowery throne, shooting forth golden rays exactly like those of Buddha. Perceive then that an image of Bodhisattva Mahāsthāma is sitting on the right-hand flowery throne.

‘When these perceptions are gained the images of Buddha and the Bodhisattvas will all send forth brilliant rays, clearly lighting up all the jewel-trees with golden colour. Under every tree there are also three lotus-flowers. On every lotus-flower there is an image, either of Buddha or of a Bodhisattva; thus (the images of the Bodhisattvas and of Buddha) are found everywhere in that country. When this perception has been gained, the devotee should hear the excellent Law preached by means of a stream of water, a brilliant ray of light, several jewel-trees, ducks, geese, and swans. Whether he be wrapped in meditation or whether he has ceased from it, he should ever hear the excellent Law. What the devotee hears must be kept in memory and not be lost, when he ceases from that meditation; and it should agree with the Sūtras, for if it does not agree with the Sūtras, it is called an illusory perception, whereas if it does agree, it is called the rough perception of the World of Highest Happiness;—such is the perception of the images, and it is the Eighth Meditation.

‘He who has practised this meditation is freed from the sins (which otherwise involve him in) births and deaths for innumerable millions of kalpas, and during this present life he obtains the Samādhi due to the remembrance of Buddha.

‘Further, when this perception is gained, you should next proceed to meditate on the bodily marks and the light of Buddha Amitāyus.

‘Thou shouldst know, O Ānanda, that the body of Buddha Amitāyus is a hundred thousand million times as bright as the colour of the Jāmbūnada gold of the heavenly abode of Yama; the height of that Buddha is six hundred thousand niyutas of koṭīs of yojanas innumerable as are the sands of the river Gangā.

‘The white twist of hair between the eyebrows all turning to the right, is just like the five Sumeru mountains.

‘The eyes of Buddha are like the water of the four great oceans; the blue and the white are quite distinct.

‘All the roots of hair of his body issue forth brilliant rays which are also like the Sumeru mountains.

‘The halo of that Buddha is like a hundred millions of the Great Chiliocosms; in that halo there are Buddhas miraculously created, to the number of a million of niyutas of koṭīs innumerable as the sands of the Gangā; each of these Buddhas has for attendants a great assembly of numberless Bodhisattvas who are also miraculously created.

‘Buddha Amitāyus has eighty-four thousand signs of perfection, each sign is possessed of eighty-four minor marks of excellence, each mark has eighty-four thousand rays, each ray extends so far as to shine over the worlds of the ten quarters, whereby Buddha embraces and protects all the beings who think upon him and does not exclude (anyone of them). His rays, signs, &c., are difficult to be explained in detail. But in simple meditation let the mind’s eye dwell upon them.

‘If you pass through this experience, you will at the same time see all the Buddhas of the ten quarters. Since you see all the Buddhas it is called the Samādhi of the remembrance of the Buddhas.

‘Those who have practised this meditation are said to have contemplated the bodies of all the Buddhas. Since they have meditated on Buddha’s body, they will also see Buddha’s mind. It is great compassion that is called Buddha’s mind. It is by his absolute compassion that he receives all beings.

‘Those who have practised this meditation will, when they die, be born in the presence of the Buddhas in another life, and obtain a spirit of resignation wherewith to face all the consequences which shall hereafter arise.

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