Sutra Collection (EFG)
10:39 h Buddhist
Sutra (Sanskrit: सूत्र, romanized: sūtra, lit. 'string, thread') in Indian literary traditions refers to an aphorism or a collection of aphorisms in the form of a manual or, more broadly, a condensed manual or text.
Sutra Collection

The First Teaching
Sutra on the Eight Realizations

[with commentary]

By Thich Nhat Hanh

(Translated from the Vietnamese by Truong Giam Tan and Carole Melkonian)

Wholeheartedly, day and night, a disciple of the Buddha should recite and meditate on the eight realizations discovered by the mahasattvas, the great beings.

THE FIRST REALIZATION is the awareness that the world is impermanent. All political regimes are subject to fall; all things composed of the four elements are empty and contain the seeds of suffering. Human beings are composed of five skandhas, aggregates, and are without a separate self. They are always in the process of change constantly being born and constantly dying. They are empty of self, without sovereignty. The mind is the source of all confusion, and the body is the forest of all impure actions. If we meditate on these facts, we can gradually be released from samsara, the round of birth and death.

THE SECOND REALIZATION is the awareness that more desire brings more suffering. All hardships in daily life arise from greed and desire. Those with little desire and ambition can relax, their bodies and minds free from entanglement.

THE THIRD REALIZATION is that the human mind is always searching for possessions and never feels fulfilled. This causes impure actions to ever increase. Bodhisattvas however, always remember the principle of having few desires. They live a simple life in peace in order to practice the Way, and consider the realization of perfect understanding as their only career.

THE FOURTH REALIZATION is the awareness that laziness is the cause of all setbacks. For this reason, we must practice diligently destroying the unwholesome mental factors, which bind us, conquering the four kinds of Mara, and freeing ourselves from the prisons of the five aggregates and the three worlds.

THE FIFTH REALIZATION is the awareness that ignorance is the cause of the endless round of birth and death. Therefore, bodhisattvas always remember to listen and learn in order to develop their understanding and eloquence. This enables them to educate living beings and bring them to the realm of great joy.

THE SIXTH REALIZATION is the awareness that poverty creates more hatred and anger, which in turn creates more evil. When practicing generosity, bodhisattvas consider everyone, friends, and enemies alike, as equal. They do not condemn anyone’s past wrongdoings, nor do they hate even those who are presently doing evil.

THE SEVENTH REALIZATION is that the five categories of desire all lead to difficulties. Although we are in the world, we should try not to be caught up in worldly matters. A monk, for example, has in his possession only three robes and one bowl. He lives simply in order to practice the Way. His precepts keep him above attachment to worldly things, and he treats everyone equally and with compassion.

THE EIGHTH REALIZATION is the awareness that the fire of birth and death is raging, causing endless suffering everywhere. We should take the Great Vow to help everyone, to suffer along with everyone, and to help all beings arrive at the realm of great joy.

These eight realizations are the discoveries of great beings, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas who have diligently practiced the way of compassion and understanding. They have sailed the Dharmakaya boat to the shore of nirvana, But then they return to the ordinary world, having abandoned the five desires, with their minds and hearts directed toward the noble way, using these eight realizations to help all beings recognize the suffering in this world. If the disciples of the Buddha recite these eight realizations and meditate on them, they will put an end to countless misunderstandings and difficulties moment after moment and progress toward enlightenment, leaving behind the world of birth and death, dwelling forever in peace.


This sutra was translated from Pali to Chinese by the Parthian monk, An Shih Kao (Vietnamese: An The Cao), at the Lo Yang Center in China during the later Han Dynasty, 140-171 A.D. It is not certain if the Pali version is extant. The ancient form of this sutra is the culmination of several smaller works combined, just like the Forty-two Chapters Sutra and the Sutra on the Six Paramitas. This sutra is entirely in accord with both the Mahayana and Theravada traditions.

Each of the eight items discussed can be a subject of meditation, and each of these subjects can be further divided. Although the form of the sutra is simple, its content is extremely profound and marvelous. The Sutra on the Eight Realizations of the Great Beings is not an analysis of anything. It is a realistic and effective approach to meditation.


The Sutra on the Eight Realizations of the Great Beings contains eleven essential subjects for meditation. I will discuss these subjects along with the eight realizations.

1. The first realization explains and clarifies the four basic subjects of Buddhist meditation: (a) impermanence, (b) suffering, (c) no-self, and (d) impurity. We must always remember and meditate on these four principles of reality. As mentioned in the sutra, if someone meditates on these facts, he or she will gradually be released from samsára, the round of birth and death.

a. Impermanence - the impermanent nature of all things: From moment to moment, all things in this world, including human life, mountains and rivers, and political systems, are in constant transformation. This is called impermanence in each moment. Everything passes through a period of birth, maturity, transformation, and destruction. This destruction is called impermanence in each cycle. To see the impermanent nature of all things, we must examine this closely. Doing so will prevent us from being imprisoned by the things of this world.

b. Suffering - the emptiness of all things: The ancient people of India said that all things are composed of four elements: earth, air, water, and fire. Acknowledging this, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas understand that when there is a harmonious relationship among the four elements, there is peace. When the four elements are not in harmony, there is suffering. Because all things are created by a combination of these elements, nothing can exist independently or permanently. All things are impermanent. Consequently, when we are caught up in the things of the world, we suffer from their impermanent nature. And since all things are empty, when we are caught by things, we also suffer from their emptiness. Awareness of the existence of suffering leads us to begin to practice the way of realization. This is the first of the Four Noble Truths. When we lose awareness of and do not meditate on the existence of suffering in all things, we can easily be pushed around by passions and desires for worldly things, increasingly destroying our lives in the pursuit of these desires. Only by being aware of suffering can we find its cause, confront it directly, and eliminate it.

c. Selflessness - the nature of our bodies: Buddhism teaches that human beings are composed of five aggregates, called skandhas in Sanskrit. If the form created by the four elements is empty and without self, then human beings, created by the unification of the five skandhas, must also be empty and without self. Human beings are involved in a transformation process from second to second, minute to minute, and continually pass through the impermanence in each moment. By looking very deeply into the five skandhas, we can experience the selfless nature of our bodies, our passage through birth and death, and emptiness. Thereby destroying the illusion that our bodies are permanent. In Buddhism, no self is the most important subject for meditation. By meditating on no self, we can break through the barrier between self and other. Since we are no longer separate from the universe, a completely harmonious existence with the universe is created. We see that all other human beings exist in us and that we exist in all other human beings. We see that the past and the future are contained in the present moment, and we can penetrate and be completely liberated from the cycle of birth and death. Modern science has also discovered the truth of the selfless nature of all things. In the following paragraph written by the British biologist Lyall Watson, we can see the truth of no self through the eyes of a scientist. Lyall Watson is not a student of Buddhism, but his approach corresponds entirely with the principles of dependent origination and no self. Scientists, who meditate continuously on the selfless nature of their own bodies and minds, as well as the selfless nature of all things, will one day easily attain enlightenment.

d. Impurity - the nature of our bodies and minds: Impurity means the absence of an immaculate state of being, one that is neither holy nor beautiful. From the psychological and physiological standpoint, human beings are impure. This is not negative or pessimistic, but an objective perspective on human beings. If we examine the constituents of our bodies from the hair on our head to the blood, pus, phlegm, excrement, urine, the many bacteria dwelling in the intestines, and the many diseases present waiting for the opportunity to develop, we can see clearly that our bodies are quite impure and subject to decay. Our bodies also create the motivation to pursue and attempt to satisfy our desires and passions. That is why the sutra regards the body as the place where misdeeds gather. Let us now consider our psychological state. Since we are unable to see the truth of impermanence, suffering, and the selfless nature of all things, our minds often become the victims of greed and hatred, and we act wrongly. So the sutra says, “The mind is the source of all confusion.”

2. “More desire brings more suffering” is the basis of the second realization. Most people define happiness as the satisfaction of all desires. There are five types of desire. These desires are boundless but our ability to realize them is not, and unfulfilled desires always create suffering. When desires are only partially fulfilled, we continue to pursue their complete fulfillment, and we create more suffering. Even when a desire is fulfilled, we suffer when its fulfillment terminates. It is only after we become completely exhausted from this incessant pursuit that we begin to realize the extent to which we were caught in the insatiable net of desires and passions. Then we can realize that true happiness is really a peaceful state of body and mind, and this can only exist when our desires are few. Having few desires and not seeking fulfillment through the pursuit of the five desires are great steps towards liberation.

3. Knowing how to feel satisfied with few possessions destroys desire and greed. This means being content with material conditions that allow us to be healthy and strong enough to practice the Way. This is an effective way to cut through the net of passions and desires, attain a peaceful state of body and mind, have more time to help others, and be free to realize the highest goal the development of concentration and understanding to attain realization. Knowing how to feel satisfied with few possessions helps us avoid buying unnecessarily and becoming part of an economic system that exploits others, and it enables us to decrease our involvement in the pollution of our environment.

4. Diligent practice destroys laziness. After we cease looking for joy in desires and passions and know how to feel satisfied with few possessions, we must not be lazy, letting days and months slip by neglectfully. Great patience and diligence are needed day and night to continually develop our concentration and understanding the endeavor of self-realization. We must use all of our time to meditate on the four truths of impermanence, suffering, selflessness, and impurity, the first four subjects of meditation. We must penetrate deeply into the profound meaning of The Four Foundations of Mindfulness, practicing, studying, and meditating on the postures and cycles (becoming, maturing, transformation, and destruction) of our bodies, as well as our feelings, sensations, mental formations, and consciousness. We should read sutras and other writings, which explain meditation correct sitting and controlling the breath, such as The Satipatthána Sutta and The Maha Prajna Paramita Heart Sutra. We have to follow the teachings of these sutras and practice them in an intelligent way, choosing the methods which best apply to our own situation. As necessary, we can modify the methods suggested in order to accommodate our own needs. Our energy must also be regulated until all the basic desires and passions greed, anger, narrow-mindedness, arrogance, doubt, and preconceived ideas are uprooted. At this time we will know that our bodies and minds are liberated from the imprisonment of birth and death, the five skandhas, and the three worlds.

5. Concentration and understanding destroy narrow-mindedness. Among the basic desires and passions, narrow-mindedness has the deepest roots. When these roots are loosened, all other desires and passions greed, anger, doubt, and preconceived ideas are also uprooted. Knowing this, we can make a great effort to meditate on the truths of impermanence, no self, and the dependent origination of all things. Once the roots of ignorance are severed, we can not only liberate ourselves, but also teach others to break through the imprisonment of birth and death.

The first four subjects of meditation are to help us attain liberation. The next four subjects have the aim of helping others attain liberation, thus clearly and solidly uniting Theravada and Mahayana Buddhist thought.

6. When practicing generosity, we should consider everyone equal. Some people think that they can only practice generosity if they are wealthy. This is not true. Some people who are very wealthy do practice generosity, but many give